At Outward Bound Sabah, rafting is usually used in one of the following ways:

  • As part of the final expedition on Challenge Course
  • As part of a one day jungle walk / one day raft combination on shorter course
  • As a separate one day activity itself

It is done in the Papar River which has rapids up to Class III in times of high water. During most times, the rapids would be considered Class I or II which is ideal for beginners.

You may read the International Grading Scale of River Difficult for explanation of the classes.

Instead of a rubber boat, we use the inner tube and bamboo lashed together to form a raft that will be used on this river. This practice is very beneficial for the participants as they will work together to build a strong and practicable raft for their own group. Everyone will be involved in this process which at the same time will enhance the level of teamwork, brainstorming, decision making and leadership, to name a few.

Rafting is a good opportunity for individuals to practise skills in stressful situations. It allows the group to make tough decisions when tackling the rapids.

Raft Building Exercise

This exercise is done on the Kawang River Bank or the beach front. The group will be given a timeframe to discuss, plan and build their raft by using the inner tubes and bamboo or blue plastic barrels and wooden spars, that can accommodate all the group members to cross the river safely.


  1. Management of multi-faceted project
  2. Planning
  3. Presentation skills
  4. Creativity
  5. Management of human resources, equipment, technical skills allocation, finances and time
International Grading Scale of River Difficulty